Obesity is a condition defined as excessive accumulation and storage of fat in the body. Body mass index (BMI), which is body weight in kilograms divided by square of height in meters, is the typical method used to estimate body fat, and may be sufficient in non-disease or non-disability states. However, review studies have shown that the commonly used BMI cutoff values have a low sensitivity to detect adipose tissue,1,2 and may have significant accuracy issues in disease and disability states. BMI does not take into consideration the differences in body composition, especially the percentage of body fat (%BF), which defines obesity.3 Of special interest is the development of sarcopenic obesity and its consequences for people with certain disability or medical conditions and in elderly adults. This condition is characterized by the co-existence of decreased lean muscle mass (sarcopenia) and increased or replacement fat mass.4
The accepted standard of measurement for obesity is BMI, although this is only a proxy for %BF (body fat). Clinicians should be mindful of difficulties in using BMI as the sole measure of healthy weight, especially in individuals with disease and disability. Table 1 below compares different methods that measure obesity and/or % BF according to advantages and disadvantages.2,5
Table 1. Measuring body fat
|BMI (Body mass index)|
|Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA)|
|Underwater weighing (densitometry)|
|Dilution method (hydrometry)|
|Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)|
Weight Categories based on BMI:
Underweight: BMI <18.5 kg/m2
Normal weight: BMI 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2
Overweight: BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2
Obesity: BMI ≥30 kg/m2
Severe Obesity: BMI >40 kg/m2
These BMI cutoffs apply to Caucasian, Hispanic, African American individuals, and some Asian populations. Certain Asian populations define overweight as 23-24. 9 kg/m2 and obesity as >25 kg/m2.
There are many causes for obesity, and an absolute etiology is unknown. A strong contributor is increased caloric intake related to activity level, in combination with genetic or other predisposing causes. Caloric balance is required to maintain a normal body weight. When calories consumed exceed calories expended, weight gain will result. The physiologic equivalent of 1 pound is 3500 calories. Reduced energy expenditure may be more important than increased food intake in causing obesity. Limited activity is a common occurrence in people with many causes for disability. Any alteration to the hypothalamus and arcuate nuclei can affect appetite, satiety, and metabolic rate. Possible genetic risk factors include melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) mutation, fat mass and obesity association gene (FTO), and insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2). Further research is needed in this area. Leptin and ghrelin are two hormones that have been recognized to have a major influence on energy balance. Leptin is a mediator of long-term regulation of energy balance, suppressing food intake and thereby inducing weight loss. Ghrelin on the other hand is a fast-acting hormone, playing a role in meal initiation. Ghrelin stimulates appetite and induces a positive energy balance that can lead to weight gain. Serum Ghrelin levels increase during fasting and surge shortly before meals.7 Leptin levels, which reflect the proportion of adipose tissue, increase with overeating by nearly 40 percent within 12 hours.8Ghrelin levels decrease after eating. It is unclear how these genetic risk factors and hormones affect the body fat accumulation of people with disability.
Another important factor to consider is the distribution of fat, specifically visceral vs. subcutaneous. Obese patients with visceral fat distribution show a higher abnormality of glucose and lipid metabolism than those with a subcutaneous fat distribution.9 Hence, there is a higher prevalence of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, and coronary artery disease in people with visceral adiposity. This pattern frequently exists in certain disability populations (e.g., spinal cord injury, spina bifida, cerebral palsy). Therefore, insulin resistant diabetes should be recognized in these populations.
Epidemiology including risk factors and primary prevention:
- Obesity is a chronic disease with an increasing prevalence in the United States as well as worldwide.
- More than one-third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of the adults in the United States are obese.10
- The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the US was $147 billion in 2008 US dollars; the medical cost for people who are obese was $ 1.429 higher than those of normal weight.10
- People with disability have a higher prevalence of obesity than people without disability.11
- There are several challenges that people with disability face in trying to prevent obesity. These include difficulty accessing healthy foods, side effects of certain medications, poorly monitored enteral feeding,12 pain, reduced ability to exercise, decreased energy, lack of accessible environments and resources.11
- Low socioeconomic status plays a large role in the development of obesity for a variety of reasons. Obesity prevalence among preschoolers was the highest for families in which the household income was at or below the poverty threshold.13
- Prevention: Obesity is a complex health issue and there is not a simple strategy to help prevent it. There are state and local programs available as well as community efforts that try to prevent obesity by promoting healthy living behaviors.14
Obesity is a complex, multifactorial condition influenced by social, behavioral, physiologic, metabolic, cellular, and molecular interactions.
Risk factors in adults:
- Genetic predisposition
- Diabetes mellitus
- Seasonal affective disorder
- Childhood physical abuse
- Shorter sleep duration (<5 hrs. in adults <60 years old)
- Excess pregnancy weight gain with failure to lose weight by 6 months post-partum
- Obesity in social network
- Pre-existing disability that limits mobility (e.g., spinal cord injury), including progressive disabilities (e.g., multiple sclerosis)
- Subacute medical conditions that cause limited mobility, that may not be permanent (e.g., post trauma with multiple fractures)
Risks for childhood and adolescent obesity:
- Obesity in older siblings
- Increased birth weight
- Infants with higher BMI or rapid growth rates in infancy
- Television more than 8 hours per week at 3 years of age
- Parental obesity, especially maternal
- Lower parental educational attainment
- Lower self esteem
- Pre-existing disability or conditions that limits mobility (e.g., spina bifida, cerebral palsy), progressive conditions (e.g., muscular dystrophy), and other conditions associated with weight gain (e.g., Prader-Willi, Down Syndrome)
- Neuroendocrine disorders (metabolic syndrome, hypothyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, hypothalamic obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism)
- Medication-induced weight gain (corticosteroids, antidepressants, antipsychotics, antiepileptics, diabetic medications)
- Obesity in and of itself (and associated conditions) can be a cause for increasing disability
- Fast food consumption
- Sedentary behaviors
- Excessive alcohol consumption
Disease progression including natural history, disease phases or stages, disease trajectory (clinical features and presentation over time):
There are critical periods in development (for children achieving typical milestones) when environmental and nutritional influences can be predispositions to obesity and metabolic disease.15 This “metabolic programming” may account for intergenerational transmission of obesity. High maternal BMI and excessive gestational weight gain are risk factors for childhood obesity. The period between the ages of 3 and 10 years is important in terms of predicting future overweight status. Moreover, the risk of being overweight in adulthood is at least twice as great for overweight children as for non-overweight children. This risk is 3 to 10 times higher if the child’s weight is above the 95th percentile for his or her age. Parental overweight also plays a strong role in this group. Nearly 75% of overweight children age 3 to 10 years remained overweight in early adulthood if they had one or more overweight parent, compared with 25% to 50% if neither parent was overweight.
Obesity in middle age is associated with increased risk of hospitalization and mortality after age 65. These hospitalizations and deaths are from coronary artery disease, cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes.
For people with disability, increasing weight is often associated with decreasing activity as a factor of growth and maturation (for childhood-onset disability types), directly related to the new onset of disability (temporary or permanent), or with decreasing activity over the course of chronic disability.
Consequences and complications:
People who are obese compared to those with a healthy weight show an increased risk for:16
- All-causes of death
- Diabetes mellitus type 2
- Coronary heart disease
- Gallbladder disease
- Sleep apnea and breathing problems
- Some cancers (endometrial, breast, colon kidney, gallbladder, liver)
- Low quality of life
- Mental illness such as clinical depression, anxiety, and other mental disorders
- Body pain and difficulty with physical functioning
There may be an association with:
- Slipped capital femoral epiphysis in pediatric obesity
- Lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
With rapid weight loss, there may be increased risk of:
- Femoral nerve amyotrophy
- Superior mesenteric artery syndrome
2. ESSENTIALS OF ASSESSMENT
Primary care physicians have been identified as taking primary responsibility for weight management. However, all physicians have been called into action to take some responsibility. Physiatrists may take a joint or primary role in management. Weight status may be a component of the referral for mobility issues or pain management, and many physiatrists take a primary role in health management for people with disability. General recommendations for weight management are for screening and evaluation first and foremost.
- All adults without chronic disability and disease states: determine overweight/obesity using BMI (≥ 25 kg/m2) calculated from actual measures, and/or WC following standards (≥ 35 in/88 cm for women; ≥ 40 in/104 cm for men).
- Children and adolescents without longstanding disability and disease states: routine measured height/weight should be plotted, BMI calculated.
- People with disability: BMI/WC may be used with recognition of limitations; recognize possible sarcopenic component; use of other measures based on disability type (see Table above).
- History of present illness: discuss the factors contributing to and associated with obesity–weight gain over time, age/gender (increasing age, hormonal changes)17, dyspnea, joint pain
- Medication history: steroids, anti-epileptics, antidepressants, antipsychotics18
- Sleep history: daytime sleepiness, sleep apnea
- Past medical history: diabetes, thyroid conditions, childhood obesity, level of disability
- Mood disorders: depression/anxiety19, eating disorders (binging, bulimia, night-eating); depression is a known comorbidity, so screening with Beck Depression Scale or similar instrument may be warranted
- Family history: obesity, diabetes, family lifestyle (e.g., eating habits, activity)
- Lifestyle and social history: lifestyle events related to weight changes (e.g., change in marital status, new job, smoking cessation19, level of physical activity, family lifestyle, socio-economic status (low income associated with higher risks for obesity17), participation in weight management programs
- Nutritional history: diet diary, fast food intake, soda intake
- Activity pattern: participation in exercise outside of daily routines, change in mobility status, pain or fatigue limiting activity
- Risk assessment: assess likelihood of obesity becoming a chronic problem and thus an important contributor to other medical problems (e.g., hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, diabetes and coronary artery disease); the latter two along with sleep apnea place patients in a very high-risk category for subsequent mortality and must be managed independent of weight loss efforts.
- Functional status: As %BF increases, assessment of most recent functional status is essential for development of a treatment plan and needed modifications.
- The most appropriate direct measure or proxy for %BF should be used. BMI is standardized only for those without disease or long-standing disability, and requires accurate on-site measurement of height and weight. Waist circumference may be used to measure central or abdominal obesity,20 and may have more utility in people with long-standing disability. One standard measurement should be used to follow trends.
- Examination needed when determining most appropriate intervention:
- Cardiac, pulmonary, and abdominal exam
- Musculoskeletal exam, especially when there are complaints of joint pain
- Balance assessment, 6-minute walk test, Get Up and Go test, and endurance testing
- Genetic testing may be pursued for research purposes (mutations noted above)
- For ongoing or primary care evaluation:
- Endocrine concerns: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4; 24-hour urine for free-cortisol
- Lipid profile: asses for comorbid cardiovascular disease risk
- Diabetes management: Glycohemaglobin or oral glucose tolerance test
- If specific measure of body fat is indicated: skinfold thickness, DEXA, BIA, CT/MRI; will need standardized results by disability for comparison
People with obesity and/or disability may require modifications for imaging techniques. MRI and CT have been used to identify visceral adipose and body fat, but is not routinely used in the assessment of obesity. Weight bearing hip and/or knee radiographs, if there are symptoms or signs, may allow follow-up over time as needed, but is not standard.
Social and environmental factors:
There is an important association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and overweight/obesity. Neighborhoods influence food availability (e.g., cost, distance, healthy and non-super-sized options), access to physical activity (e.g., accessible sidewalks, parks, transportation), and sense of safety (e.g., crime rate, traffic, adequate lighting) in pursuing a healthy weight. Discretionary income often plays a part in access to gyms and health clubs, and services and equipment must be accessible. In addition, parental and family support of unhealthy food choices and a sedentary lifestyle influence the patterns of these in a child and can thus heavily contribute to the development of obesity. Family members and other close friends who are obese pose a risk for personal obesity. Alcohol use and high levels of stress may also contribute to obesity by increasing caloric intake.
3. REHABILITATION MANAGEMENT AND TREATMENTS
Available or current treatment guidelines:
Guidelines have been developed regarding screening, assessment, and management of obesity in the general population.21-24 Common features include emphasis on complications rather than BMI alone, use of multicomponent interventions (e.g., nutrition, physical activity, counseling, behavioral approaches), and highlighting the importance of adherence. The goals of treatment for obesity differ with age and presence of chronic conditions. In younger patients the goal is to decrease mortality and co-morbidities, whereas in the elderly, the focus is to improve quality of life and increase survival without limiting function.25 There are no guidelines, nor suggested modifications to existing guidelines, for the assessment and management of obesity in people with disability. But the goal of treatment in that population may be a combination of the two noted above, i.e., to decrease or modify co-morbidities and to improve mobility and quality of life. A negative energy balance through modification of food and physical activity behaviors is required to achieve weight loss in most conditions.
PM&R practices may require obesity management for patients with acute/subacute disorders that limit mobility (e.g., musculoskeletal pain, post multiple fractures), those with chronic disability (e.g., stroke, cerebral palsy, orthopedic disorders, pain disorders), and those seen within inpatient programs (e.g., inpatient rehabilitation facilities [IRF] or skilled nursing facility rehabilitation programs) following planned or emergency hospitalizations. Morbid obesity is not an IRF qualifying impairment group in its own right, however it is an important factor to take into account when it is present in patients admitted to an IRF. Morbidly obese patients require specialized hospital and durable medical equipment including space to accommodate this and use of overhead lifts to prevent hospital worker injuries. Such patients often require a longer stay to achieve functional independence measure (FIM) gains comparable to those who are not morbidly obese.26
Efficacy of weight loss programs:
Obesity management is difficult because it entails actively changing patterns of behavior not only in an individual but many times also in his/her family. Family or friends making a group effort to support health management strategies may result in more success. Losing weight and maintaining a healthy weight requires lifestyle modifications to decrease calorie consumption (diet) and increase caloric expenditure (exercise) on a daily basis. For people who are obese, that usually means major, life-long lifestyle modifications. Behavior modification involves counseling about or self-management of behaviors that contribute to weight gain, and the factors that may lead to recurrence of those behaviors.27 Self-management is complex and should include: goal setting, monitoring, self-efficacy, problem solving, accountability, social support, relapse prevention, and positive reinforcement/feedback.27 An element of regular support from health professionals or some routine check-in has proven to be helpful for some.28Recent studies have shown success in the general population using electronic assistance (e.g., smartphone applications, web-based systems, wearable technology) to provide feedback and reinforcement for lifestyle changes.29
In the general population, weight loss peaks at 6 months with interventions (advice/counseling, diet, exercise). Physical activity alone rarely results in significant weight loss over a 3 month period; however physical activity is critical to maintaining weight loss beyond 6 months.27 In general, adherence to weight management programs is often poor with high attrition rates.30Higher levels of physical activity (expenditure of 2500 kcals/week) lead to significantly greater long-term weight loss (at 12 and 18 months) as compared with an expenditure of 1000 kcals/week.29The National Weight Control Registry examined the characteristics of individuals who were successful at long-term weight reduction and found that these individuals reported purposeful physical activity resulting in an average expenditure of 2,600 kcal/week.27 The combination of routine diet and exercise can result in greater weight loss (measured as kg lost over time) at 6 months and again at 1 year, compared to diet alone.31
Although medications for weight loss exist, many are not FDA regulated. Many over-the-counter (OTC) medications are not effective for weight loss, and some OTC and prescription medications can have serious side effects. For example, Orlistat, a prescription “diet pill” that decreases the absorption of dietary fats by inhibiting gastric and pancreatic lipases, had post-marketing reports of hepatocellular necrosis and acute hepatic failure with some cases resulting in death. Phentermine is another prescription diet pill that can have very serious side effects including heart valve disorder, primary pulmonary hypertension and psychotic disorder. It is a CNS stimulant that increases the release of norepinephrine in the hypothalamus resulting in increased serum leptin levels and thus suppresses appetite. For the most part, medications are usually meant to be a part of a larger program of diet, physical activity, and behavior changes. In general, only those physicians with knowledge, skill, and plans for routine follow-up should prescribe medications.
Indications for bariatric surgery for adults without disability:
- BMI > 40 kg/m2
- BMI > 35 kg/ m2and a serious obesity-related comorbidity (i.e. DM, CAD, sleep apnea)
One of the above AND both of the following:
- Have failed less invasive weight loss methods
- Are highly motivated to improve their quality of life
Separate guidelines exist for bariatric surgery in adolescents and children32but there are none for people with disability.
Types of bariatric surgical procedures:
- Gastric banding
- Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
- Sleeve gastrectomy
- Biliary pancreatic diversion
- Potential nutrient deficiencies including vitamin B12, folate, vitamin D, and iron
- Greater weight loss (20-35% of initial weight at 2-3 years post-op) than conservative measures21-23
- Longer duration of maintaining healthier weight in adults21-23
- Favorable effect on obesity-related comorbidities:
- Reductions in fasting glucose and insulin levels
- Decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes
- Greater likelihood of remission of diabetes
- Improvement in most measures of health-related quality of life at 2 and 10 years post-op21-23
At different stages
Childhood and adolescent obesity should be addressed as soon as possible. A combined approach including decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure is optimal. Children should always be in a medically supervised intervention program.
Lifestyle modification in combination with a weight-loss program should be initiated. Unless one is in a medically supervised intervention program, the lowest daily caloric intake recommended is 1,200 calories for women and 1,500 for men. Medical comorbidities should be discussed and reviewed.
Identification with disability and prevention
Since individuals with disability very often have impaired mobility, the risk of developing obesity is an important health concern. There must be anticipatory guidance to monitor nutritional intake early on and to implement an adapted exercise regimen.
Coordination of care:
Most dedicated weight loss programs involve multidisciplinary teams, including exercise physiologists, athletic trainers, dieticians/nutritionists, and psychologists, with involvement of physicians, especially when participants have chronic conditions and/or disability. People with disability can engage in and benefit from weight management strategies, but may require cognitive, motor, or environmental modifications and different supports from those typically offered. Self-management programs, while individually driven, require frequent clinical assessment and outside monitoring.
Translation into practice: practice “pearls”/performance improvement in practice (PIPs)/changes in clinical practice behaviors and skills:
Obesity is a prevalent health problem. Physiatrists care for a large variety of patients with obesity as a cause for disability, or in association with disability. Typical office practices can be organized to include routine measures of healthy weight status (e.g., on-site weight/height measurement, determination of BMI, waist circumference measurement, or other accepted measurement), discussion of and guidance for physical activity, guidance for caloric intake or referral for individual discussion, and sources for dedicated weight loss programs, health clubs and gyms (especially those offering modified programs), or self-management strategies.
Please note that there is a poorly utilized CPT-code for physical activity counseling (ICD-9: V49.89 and ICD-10: Z78.9). Observing trends of mobility associated with weight changes in individual patients or patients grouped by disability type can offer insights into rehabilitation interventions. Documentation of even some of the above can demonstrate participation in quality measures, and can support appropriate ICD and CPT coding.
Counseling rates for obesity and weight management are low among healthcare professionals.29 The low rates are attributed to limited physician education in undergraduate and graduate medical education about the topic, time restraints in clinical practice, and difficulties broaching the subject.19,33
- As the prevalence of obesity continues to rise in the population at large, as well as in those with disability, it is imperative that this issue not be overlooked. Population medicine and public health have been promoted in undergraduate medical education, and include information about obesity and strategies to engage patients. Graduate medical education must also include obesity prevention and management within each specialty area. Understanding the theories and constructs of behavior change is a key element of health promotion strategies (Table 2).
- As health/medical homes and quality measures become more mainstream, documentation of obesity and interventions may be required.
- Training physicians in motivational interviewing would make it easier to start conversations with obese patients about their weight and the importance of noting this health issue. A life-style events vs. body weight graph (that tracks life events with associated weight gain) may allow physicians to begin conversations about the path to weight management.19Patients must be aware that behavior modification is significant in long-term success for losing weight and subsequent weight management.
Table 2. Theories of behavior change and health promotion
|Transtheoretical Model34||Stages of or readiness to change behaviors:|
– Pre-contemplative (no thought about change)
– Contemplative (thoughts about change)
– Preparation (taking steps to change)
– Action (initiating changes or activities)
– Maintenance (sustaining activities of change)Processes or strategies used to change: consciousness raising, goal setting, social support, role modeling, self-efficacy, decisional balance, self-rewards
|Social Cognitive Theory35||Interrelationships of social environment, personal cognitive capabilities, present behaviors that may affect future behaviors, with a focus on education|
Behavior influences and is influenced by the person and the environment
Behavior changes explanations: self-efficacy, self-regulation, outcome expectancy values, observational learning, reinforcement
|Ecological Models of Health Behavior36||Influence of behaviors by intra- and interpersonal factors, sociocultural groups, policy and physical-environmental factors|
Comprehensive approaches (multi-factorial program) more effective than a single approach
4. CUTTING EDGE/EMERGING AND UNIQUE CONCEPTS AND PRACTICE
Recognition and management of unhealthy weight for people with disability:
Although this document presents recognition and management of obesity in people with and without disability, it is not common for practitioners in general to consider weight management for people with disability. Routinely following weights or assessing %BF is an important component of follow-up for the health and function of people with disability, because both over- and underweight conditions can develop. Anticipatory guidance and preventing significant obesity in people with disability may be up to the physiatrist, who has the knowledge and skills to develop an exercise program with needed modifications.
- Measurement of obesity: BMI has been shown to not effectively measure obesity for people with disability in general, because disability and disease can affect the measurement of accurate height/weight and correct practices are not often done; %BF is actually the value of interest. There have been a number of studies about a variety of disability types showing this inaccuracy, and a few of interest are: people with SCI should be considered obese with BMI >22 kg/m2;37 amputation and limb loss limit use of BMI, and a “BMI calculator” has been developed to accommodate for this weight discrepancy;38 people with intellectual disability more closely follow the general public on BMI usage.39
- Heath Promotion programs: Weight management has been successfully achieved for people with disability through organized health promotion programs providing guidance about physical activity, nutrition, stress management, health responsibility and self-management, and behavior change.40,41,42 Curricula have been based on existing programs, with physical and cognitive modifications plus routine personal support and feedback. Many of the same adherence issues are seen for people with as without disability.
- Bariatric surgery: There are increasing numbers of case reports and series documenting success with bariatric surgery managing obesity for people with disability, primarily those with spinal cord dysfunction and intellectual and developmental disabilities. Subjects were determined to be obese with BMI typically >40kg/m2 with comorbidities (e.g., DM, sleep apnea) and failed conservative measures. Most subjects noted weight loss and decreased obesity-related comorbidities.43,44,45 Few surgical complications were noted, however typical post surgical issues may have implications for long-term care, such as difficulties managing dumping syndrome.46
- Acupuncture: Popular marketing promotes acupuncture as a successful management option for obesity. Studies exist touting the benefits, but systematic search/review articles note there are design flaws and limited rigor.47 The use of auricular acupuncture may have more promise, not used alone, but in combination with diet and exercise.48
5. GAPS IN THE EVIDENCE-BASED KNOWLEDGE
Gaps in the evidence-based knowledge
Adherence to weight management: Many people can achieve significant weight loss with our current interventions. However, long-term studies note that maintaining this weight loss seems to be elusive. Lifestyle modifications likely need incentives to help keep weight under control. The key components of a weight loss program where weight can be stabilized and maintained has not yet been determined.
Sarcopenic obesity in disability: There has be recognition that loss of muscle mass (as seen in many types of disability) and replacement with or addition of body fat can be a part of the weight management challenge in people with disability. However, there is no information about how this sarcopenia (and resulting replacement with fat) can be mitigated. Supplementation with enteral feeding is a challenge, especially with late introduction in children with lifelong disability.12 Exercise is promoted for people with disability, but its effect on this feature of disability has not been elucidated.
Guidelines for measurement and management of increased body fat in disability: As noted, there is no consensus on the best way to measure increased body fat in disability, and BMI has been shown to be inaccurate for people with many types of disability. While there are management guidelines for the general population (see section C. Management and Treatment), these guidelines have not been evaluated in disability, and there are no suggested modifications to these. The lack of guidelines for measuring healthy weight in this population is a great barrier to patient care since without adequate tools to assess a problem, management becomes all the more difficult.
- Fox MH, Witten MH, Lullo, C. Reducing obesity among people with disabilities. J Disabil Policy Stud. 2014; 25(3):175-185.
- Wells JCK &Fewtrell MS. Measuring body composition. Arch Dis Child 2006;91:612–617.
- Pasco JA, Holloway KL, Dobbins AG, Kotowicz MA, Williams LJ, Brennan SL. Body mass index and measures of body fat for defining obesity and underweight: a cross-sectional, population-based study. BMC Obesity. 2014; 1:9.
- Poggiogalle E, Migliaccio S, Lenzi A, Donini LM. Treatment of body composition changes in obese and overweight older adults: insight into the phenotype of sarcopenic obesity. Endocrine. 2014; 47(3): 699-716.
- Harvard T.S. Chan School of Public Health. Measuring obesity. Last accessed 5/21/2016. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-definition/how-to-measure-body-fatness/
- Silver HJ, Welch, EB, Avison MJ, Niswender KD. Imaging body composition in obesity and weight loss: challenges and opportunities. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2010; 3: 337–347.
- Mundinger TO, Cummigs DE, Taborsky GJ, Jr. Direct stimulation of ghrelin secretion by sympathetic nerves. Endocriniology. 2006; 147(6):2893.
- Weigle DS, Duell PB, Connor WE, Steiner RA, Soules MR, Kuijper JL. Effect of fasting, refeeding, and dietary fat restriction on plasma leptin levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82(2):561.
- Matsuzawa Y, Shimomura I, Nakamura T, Keno Y, Kotani K, Tokunaga K. Pathophysiology and pathogenesis of visceral fat obesity. Obes Res. 1995; 2:187S-194S.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adult obesity facts. Last accessed 5/21/2016. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Overweight and obesity. Last accessed 5/21/2016. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/obesity.html
- Dahlseng MO, Finbråten A-K, Júlíusson PB, Skranes J, Andersen G, Vik T. Feeding problems, growth and nutritional status in children with cerebral palsy. Acta Paediatr. 2012; 101: 92-98.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Childhood obesity facts. Lastt access 5/21/2016. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/childhood.html
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Strategies to prevent obesity. Last accessed 5/21/2016. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/strategies/index.html
- Gillman MW, Ludwig DSN. How early should obesity prevention start? Engl J Med. 2013;369(23):2173.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adult obesity causes and consequences. Last access 5/21/2016.http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/adult/causes.html
- Food Research and Action Center. 2015 Factors contributing to overweight and obesity. Last accessed 10/18/2015. http://frac.org/initiatives/hunger-and-obesity/what-factors-contribute-to-overweight-and-obesity/
- Bak M, Fransen A, Janssen J, van Os J, Drukker M. Almost all antipsychotics result in weight gain: a meta-analysis. PloS ONE. 2014; 9: e94112.
- Kushner, RF. Clinical assessment and management of adult obesity. Circulation. 2012;126: 2870-2877.
- Després, J-P. Abdominal obesity: the most prevalent cause of the metabolic syndrome and related cardiometabolic risk. Eur Heart J Suppl. 2006; 8: B4-B12.
- American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, Obesity Expert Panel, 2013. Expert Panel Report: Guidelines of overweight and obesity in adults. Obesity. 2014; 22: 99-109.
- Jensen MD et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS Guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2014; 63(25): 2985–3023.
- Mechanick JI et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient – 2013 Update. Obesity. 2013; 21: S1-S27.
- Fried M, Yumuk V, Oppert JM, Scopinaro N, Torres A, Weiner R, Yashkov Y, Frühbeck G. Interdisciplinary European guidelines on metabolic and bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2014; 24:42–55.
- Pajecki D, Santo MA, Kanagi AL, Riccioppo D, Cleva R, Cecconello I. Functional assessment of older obese patients candidates for bariatric surgery. Arq Gastroenterol. 2014; 51: 25-28.
- Dhungel V, Liao J, Raut H, Lilienthal MA, Garcia, LJ, Born J, Choi KC. Obesity delays functional recovery in trauma patients. J Surg Res. 2015; 193 (1): 415–420.
- Ades P, Savage PD, Harvey-Berino J. The treatment of obesity in cardiac rehabilitation. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2010; 30: 289-298.
- Pettman TL, Misan GMH, Owen K, Warren K, Coates AM, Buckley JD, Howe PRC. Self-management for obesity and cardio-metabolic fitness: Description and evaluation of the lifestyle modification program of a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2008; 5:53.
- Steinberg DM, Tate DF, Bennett GG, Ennett S, Samuel-Hodge C, Ward DS. The efficacy of a daily self-weighing weight loss intervention using smart scales and e-mail. Obesity. 2013; 21(9): 1789-1797.
- Douketis JD, Macie C, Thabane L, Williamson DF. Systematic review of long-term weight loss studies in obese adults: clinical significance and applicability to clinical practice. Int J Obes. 2005; 29(10): 1153–67.
- Curioni CC, Lourenço PM. Long-term weight loss after diet and exercise: a systematic review. Int J Obes. 2005;29(10):1168-74
- Fried M, Yumuck V, Oppert JM, Scopinaro N, Torres A, Weiner R, Yashkov Y, Frühbeck G. International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders – European chapter (IFSO-EC)and European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO). Interdisciplinary European Guidelines on Metabolic And Bariatric Surgery. Obes Surg. 2014; 24:42-55.
- Forman-Hoffman V, Little A, Wahls T. Barriers to obesity management: a pilot study of primary care clinicians. BMC Fam Pract. 2006; 7: 35.
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Original Version of the Topic:
Devon Shuchman, MD, Brian Kelly, DO. Obesity. Publication Date:2012/02/23.
Andreea Nitu-Marquise, MD
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