Search Results for: spinal cord injury

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Spinal Cord Injury-Related Pain

Relevance: 100%      Posted on: February 27, 2017

1. DISEASE/DISORDER: Definition One of the most frequently occurring physical sequelae following spinal cord injury (SCI) is persistent pain. Taxonomies for pain after spinal cord injury are available.1,2 These taxonomies have commonality, defining pain by location with respect to the level of spinal cord injury (above, at, and below) and classifying pain as nociceptive or neuropathic. Nociceptive pain implies a peripheral pain generator that is not part of the nervous system, while neuropathic pain implies a pain generator within the nervous system. Etiology Etiology is uncertain; however, emerging evidence demonstrates the role of cortical reorganization in neuropathic pain at and/or…

Autonomic Dysreflexia in Spinal Cord Injury

Relevance: 99%      Posted on: February 24, 2017

1. DISEASE/DISORDER: Definition Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) in spinal cord injury (SCI) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome characterized by an exaggerated response of the autonomic nervous system to a stimulus originating below the level of injury, resulting in a sudden increase in blood pressure. Etiology Any stimulus below the level of injury may cause AD, the most common being bladder or bowel distention or irritation.1,2 Genitourinary causes include bladder or urethral distention, detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, urinary tract infections, nephrolithiasis, epididymitis, testicular torsion, vaginal dilation (including labor), penile stimulation, and intercourse.3 Gastrointestinal causes include bowel distention or impaction, acute abdomen (including appendicitis…

Spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality

Relevance: 98%      Posted on: March 9, 2017

1. DISEASE/DISORDER: Definition SCIWORA is traumatic injury to the spinal cord without abnormalities on plain radiographic and tomographic imaging of the spine. Etiology The etiology of SCIWORA varies with age. In children aged 0 to 8 years, there are fewer fractures and subluxations, and hence more SCIWORA. The spines of neonates are vulnerable to distraction injuries, resulting in neonatal SCIWORA. Spinal cord and meningeal ruptures are found within a completely intact vertebral column in infants with complete tetraplegia after traumatic breech extraction. In younger patients, it is most common as a result of motor vehicle accidents, followed by falls.1 In older…

Traumatic spinal cord injury

Relevance: 97%      Posted on: March 9, 2017

1. DISEASE/DISORDER: Definition Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) refers to a trauma to the spinal cord leading to impaired motor, sensory, and/or autonomic function. Etiology Causes of traumatic SCI include the following: Automobile accidents Violence such as gunshots or penetrating wounds Sports injuries Diving accidents Falls Unique etiologies of pediatric SCI include the following: Lap belt injuries. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities (SCIWORA)1,2that are traumatic. Higher cervical injuries related to: Skeletal dysplasia, which increase the risk of SCI as in rheumatoid arthritis, due to atlanto-axial instability resulting from synovitis of the facets and destruction of the dens Achondroplasia which…

Pediatric spinal cord tumors

Relevance: 73%      Posted on: February 24, 2017

1. DISEASE/DISORDER: Definition Spinal cord tumors are very rare neoplasms in children. Unlike adults, spinal cord tumors in children are usually primary tumors, not metastases. Etiology Multifactorial changes at the cellular level are just beginning to be described. In different anatomical locations, the same histopathological phenotype may have different tumor biology. Malignant transformation at the molecular level is much less understood in children. Epidemiology including risk factors and primary prevention Primary pediatric spinal cord tumors account for 0.5-10% of all pediatric CNS tumors.1 Low-grade gliomas, which include astrocytomas, gangliomas, oligodendrogliomas, mixed gliomas, and other rare glial tumors, are together the…

Infectious disorders of the spinal cord

Relevance: 72%      Posted on: February 23, 2017

1. DISEASE/DISORDER: Definition Infectious disorders that affect the spinal cord can be divided according to their anatomic location, including the following: Spinal column: pyogenic osteomyelitis, spondylodiscitis and discitis,1 Pott disease,2 and spinal fungal infections. Epidural space: epidural abscess.3 Meninges: arachnoiditis. Spinal cord: intramedullary abscess, neurosyphilis, and viral infections of the spinal cord. Etiology Most common cause of spine and spinal cord infections are bacterial in origin. Causative organisms include the following: Staphylococcus species Streptococcus species Salmonella in patients with sickle cell anemia E.coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterococcus in patients who are immunocompromised Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Brucella in intravenous (IV) drug…

Spinal Instability: Definition, theory and assessment of spinal column function and dysfunction

Relevance: 51%      Posted on: March 13, 2017

1. OVERVIEW AND DESCRIPTION The spine is made up of segments consisting of two vertebrae and the interconnecting soft tissues. The integration of the biomechanical characteristics of these individual spinal components provides the overall strength and structure of the spine to protect the spinal cord and nerve roots. In addition to protecting the spinal cord and nerve roots, spine stability is necessary to perform the other basic biomechanical function of the spinal system, which is to allow movements between body parts and to carry loads1. The objective of this topic is to summarize the current concepts of spinal instability. While…

Tethered Cord Syndrome

Relevance: 41%      Posted on: March 9, 2017

1. DISEASE/DISORDER: Definition Tethered Cord Syndrome (TCS) is a complex of neurologic symptoms that include pain, incontinence, musculoskeletal deformities, motor weakness, and sensory abnormalities resulting from abnormal stretch placed on the distal spinal cord by congenital or acquired factors.1 Etiology Primary TCS is associated with abnormal primary or secondary neurulation during spinal cord development. This can result in conditions such as myelomeningocele, split cord malformations, thickened filum terminale, and lumbosacral lipomas that may lead to TCS. Secondary TCS can occur in the setting of normal development following infection, surgery, trauma, irradiation, or tumor.2 In one series, secondary TCS was identified…

Other spinal dysraphisms

Relevance: 39%      Posted on: March 9, 2017

1. DISEASE/DISORDER Definition Spinal dysraphism represents a generic term for abnormalities in the formation of the central nervous system. Specific dysraphisms discussed in this article are: Spina bifida occulta Spina bifida cystica Caudal regression syndrome Tethered cord Etiology Primary neurulation of the spinal cord develops by closure of the spinal canal by day 27 of life. In patients with spina bifida occulta and cystica, failure to close completely results in posterior spinal abnormalities of varying clinical significance. In patients with caudal regression syndrome, the lower portion of the spine fails to develop, resulting in a myriad of developmental outcomes. Epidemiology…

Spinal tumors

Relevance: 38%      Posted on: February 23, 2017

1. DISEASE/DISORDER: Definition A spinal tumor is a malignant or benign growth that develops within or near the spine and/or spinal cord. Tumors can increase in size and compress adjacent tissues. Malignant tumors can additionally invade adjacent tissues and metastasize to other locations. One way spinal tumors are classified is by their location: intramedullary tumors occur within the spinal cord; intradural extramedullary tumors occur between the spinal cord and its protective sheath, the dura; and extradural tumors occur outside the dura. Etiology All malignant and most benign tumors are the result of abnormal, excessive tissue growth following damage to genes,…